German Space Surveillance Resources

2022.01.28 06:06 SpookSkywatcher German Space Surveillance Resources

Germany, through its "Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt" (DLR) German Aerospace Center, is responsible for hosting the European Union Space Surveillance and Tracking Service (EU SST) database and generating an EU SST Catalogue of space objects. While a critical role, as of July 2020, Germany also has a Weltraumkommando der Bundeswehr (WRKdoBw) Space Command managing its own formidable space surveillance resources. 
Radar Space Surveillance Resources:
The Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (Fraunhofer-Institut für Hochfrequenzphysik und Radartechnik, FHR), is the developer of two space surveillance radars, TIRA (Tracking and Imaging Radar) and GESTRA (German Experimental Space Surveillance and Tracking Radar) for the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR). TIRA operates at two transmission frequencies, 1.333 GHz L-band and 16.7 GHz Ku-band. It has a huge 34 m aperture, 240 ton, gimbaled Cassegrain dish antenna that would look quite at home on the Death Star, and yet is capable of swinging 24 deg/sec in azimuth and 6 deg/sec in elevation, an agility necessary for tracking objects in LEO. The narrow-band coherent pulsed (30 Hz PRF) L-band radar is used for precise tracking (3 m positional accuracy at 1000 km) for orbit determination and is capable of detecting a 2 cm sphere at 1000 km. It can operate on its own or provide the tracking required by the wideband Ku-band Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) portion which is capable of better than 20 cm resolution imagery of LEO objects. . A future upgrade is to increase the imaging radar frequency for higher resolution. Sample TIRA ISAR images of the Tiangong-1 space station shortly before reentry are at and . GESTRA ( ) is a quasi-monostatic (transmitter and receiver are in separate 18 m x 4 m x 4 m transportable shelters at least 100 m apart to avoid receiver saturation) pulsed phased array L-band (~1.3 GHz) radar for detection and tracking of objects between 300 and 3000 km in altitude. The modular 256 active element (each module with an individual patch antenna) transmit and receive arrays are mounted on round 2.8 m dia. 3-axis platforms mechanically steered for efficient operation in any region of the sky and rotated for preferred polarization in linear polarization mode. Transmit array pulse peak power is 256 kW, with a 64 kW mean. Arrays have 39 dB antenna gain with pencil beam 3dB beamwidth of 6.5 deg. at the highest frequency. Multiple receiver beams may be combined to cover the transmitter illuminated volume of space. Electronic multi-beam forming and steering (+/- 45 deg in both azimuth and elevation) provide high beam agility (areas of sky scanned in milliseconds) and operational mode flexibility. These modes include search (rapidly sweeping the beam to form a "space fence" detection plane), track (though orbital location cueing is required for initial acquisition), and track-while-scan (beams can be dedicated to track individual objects while the remainder continue scanning). System angular accuracy is 0.6 deg. or better and range accuracy 8 m or better. A second separate receiver is in development for the European Space Surveillance and Tracking (EUSST) project, apparently to create a long baseline coherent network for higher resolution. The system, which is now on Schmidtenhöhe army training grounds in Koblenz, is remotely controlled by the German Space Situational Awareness Command (GSSAC) in Uedem, Germany. 
Telescopes and Camera Space Surveillance Resources:
In July 2020 the DLR began construction of the Multi-Spectral Large Aperture Receiver Telescope (MS-LART) in a controlled access industrial research park in Empfingen, Germany. MS-LART is designed for LEO space surveillance and is an f/6, 1.75 m aperture, Ritchey-Chrétien Nasmyth design with four Nasmyth focus instrumentation ports ( ). A separate 400 mm f/2.4 astrograph ( ) is mounted piggyback to document the observed area of sky with a wide field of view. MS-LART has two modes of operation. In passive mode it is strictly a space surveillance telescope observing satellites by reflected sunlight in the visible (including spectrographically) and near-IR. In active mode it is part of a lidar system discussed below. In 2021 the observatory was completed and the telescope installed. Observations are to begin in 2022. ( ). The DLR's Autonomous Passive Optical Staring Of LEO Flying Objects (APPARILLO, a word meaning "contraption") system is a proof of concept demonstrator of a high performance, compact, weatherproof. autonomously operating, comparatively low cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) component based, LEO satellite detection and tracking camera ( ). It is designed to autonomously detect LEO objects and calculate their track angles across the sensor. These are combined with sensor line of sight from star field astrometric calibration and sensor geodetic coordinates from GPS to provide equatorial coordinates in Tracking Data Message (TDM) format ( ) accurate enough for orbit calculations to cue SLR systems. It is a precursor to future DLR "Stare and Chase" camera systems that will automatically provide initial orbit determination (IOD) predictions to networked tracking and SLR systems for object detection, tracking, and ranging during a single orbit. No information was provided on future uses for APPARILLO, nor a timeline for the follow-on German "Stare and Chase" systems. APPARILLO has a 10 deg FOV and low noise astronomical camera CCD sensor capable of continuously monitoring the night sky for LEO objects. In Dec. 2020 tests it demonstrated detection of 36 objects/hour at twilight, with detection efficiency nearly 100% for object cross sections above 2.25 sq. meters, decreasing to 50% for cross sections between 1 and 2 sq. meters, and having a detectability limit of 0.1 sq. meter. The camera used is the FLI Proline PL09000 with thermoelectrically cooled On Semi KAF-09000 3056 × 3056 pixels monochrome CCD sensor ( ). The shutter is mechanical with over 50 ms actuation times and the sensor readout rate is 8 MHz through a USB 2.0 interface, both factors limiting minimum exposure time and maximum frame rate. The lens is a common Canon EF 200 mm f/2 telephoto with 100 mm aperture and 10.4 deg. minimum FOV. The camera is mounted in a weatherproof enclosure capable of rotation to 90 deg. below or above the horizon. No azimuth rotation capability was provided (other than rotating the entire system), and during testing the camera was aimed straight up. An Adafruit Ultimate GPS receiver ( ) and Arduino microcontroller board provides GPS UTC time tagging of camera frames with 100 microsecond precision. A Boltwood Cloud Sensor II ( ) determines if the sky is sufficiently clear of clouds, there is no precipitation, and there is an adequate level of darkness. that valid observations can be made. If that is true and the time of day is correct for twilight or night observations, the camera will be rotated from the downward stowed position towards the sky and enabled to acquire images. If weather conditions change for the worse or it is time for sunrise, imaging will cease and the camera head will again be pointed down in the safe position. 
Lidar Space Surveillance Resources:
Lidar surveillance of orbiting space objects falls into two categories, the purely Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations which require a target carrying retro-reflectors, and Space Debris Laser Ranging (SDLR) stations which have sufficient laser power and optical receiver sensitivity to range on a satellite or debris fragment surface return alone. In either case, cueing from other systems is required for initial target acquisition. Ranging of LEO targets to within millimeters is possible. SLR-only stations are probably not useful for UAP tracking, but are listed below for completeness. The previously discussed MS-LART can operate in the near IR as a satellite / space debris laser ranging (SLR / SDLR) system using an eye-safe laser wavelength above 1,400 nm. Other specifications on the laser have not been found, but an Erbium-YAG laser at 1600 nm is likely. Alongside the MS-LART observatory at Empfingen, is the DLR Surveillance, Tracking and Ranging (STAR-C) transportable LEO SLR system housed in a 20 ft. long shipping container with sliding roof ( ). As described in 2019, the laser was diode pumped Nd:YAG, lasing at 1064 nm, with 50 mJ/pulse 10 ns wide pulses at 1 kHz PRF for an average 50 W output power. It was mounted separate from the transmitting telescope, with the output conveyed to the 2" aperture scope through a Coudé path in the mount. It was planned to increase the transmitter aperture to 10 inches, which would lower the power density of the expanded beam (likely for safety concerns). The laser beam is a potential hazard to aviation, so air traffic was monitored during operation using a local thermal sky imager and air traffic control data. Because It was desired to operate the system entirely remotely in populated areas with aircraft possibly overhead, DLR is likely moving to an eye-safe laser Erbium-YAG laser at 1600 nm. The ranging receiver is a 17" aperture Ritchey-Chrétien design telescope with an optical bandpass filter to reject ambient light and fiber-coupled InGaAs-SPAD (single-photon avalanche diode) detector feeding the received photon time-of-flight measurement system for range determination. The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) provided precision satellite ranging for geodesy and conjunction (collision) probability assessment for approximately 100 satellites in 2019 ( ). Germany hosts two ILRS station sites actively fulfilling satellite ranging requests. Each has an associated tracking camera. The Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG) Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy runs Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, in Koetzting, Germany, which hosts two SLR systems, designated "WLRS" and "SOSW". The WLRS laser transmitter and receiver share a 0.75m aperturea Coude afocal telescope with a polarizing transmit/receive switch. In normal SLR operation the AZ/EL mount will slew at up to 10 deg/s in azimuth and 5 deg/s in elevation. The CMOS tracking camera has a 0.05 deg FOV and can detect sources of magnitude 14 brightness. The Nd:YAG laser can apparently operate with or without an amplifier section. With amplification the operating wavelength is 1064 nm with 10 ps wide pulses of 100 mJ energy at 20 Hz PRF. This can be frequency doubled to 532 nm with 50 mJ pulse energy. Without amplification the 1064 nm output is 10 ps wide pulses of 1.2 mJ energy at 500 Hz PRF. This can be frequency doubled to 532 nm with 0.2 mJ pulse energy. None of these modes is eye safe and air traffic must be monitored for potential hazard. WLRS is capable of ranging the moon (Apollo retro-reflector arrays) as well as satellites. There are four possible laser receivers. The one for 1064 nm is a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD). Those for 532 nm include a SPAD, a photomultiplier tube (PMT), and an avalanche photodiode (APD). The telescope incorporates a narrowband optical filter to permit daylight ranging. Wetzell SOSW system's receiving Cassegrain telescope has a 0.5 m aperture and the piggyback transmitting refractor telescope has a 0.15 m aperture. In normal SLR operation the AZ/EL mount will slew at up to 10 deg/s in azimuth and 5 deg/s in elevation. The CCD tracking camera has a ).05 deg FOV and can detect sources of magnitude 10 brightness. The Ti:Sap laser operating wavelength is 849.8 nm with 40 ps wide pulses of 1.5 mJ energy at 1,000 Hz PRF. The output is not eye safe, and air traffic is monitored for potential hazard. There are two possible 849.8 nm laser receivers, both APDs operated in single photon detection mode. The receiving telescope incorporates a narrowband optical filter to permit daylight ranging. GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, German Research Centre for Geosciences) Potsdam runs the "GFZLAS3" station (aka "Potsdam 3") located in Potsdam, Germany. The Coude-Cassegrain receiving telescope has a 0.44 m aperture and the piggyback transmitter is a 0.15 m aperture refractor telescope. In normal SLR operation the AZ/EL mount will slew at up to 10 deg/s in both azimuth and elevation. The thermoelectrically cooled CCD tracking camera can detect sources of magnitude 12 brightness. There are three lasers, all operating frequency doubled to 532 nm in the green. The first is Nd:YAG with 50 ps wide pulses of 10 mJ energy at 20 Hz PRF. The second is Nd:YVO with 10 ps wide pulses of 0.4 mJ energy at 2,000 Hz PRF. The third is also Nd:YVO with 10 ps wide pulses of 0.7 mJ energy at 2,000 Hz PRF. None are eye safe, and air traffic is monitored for potential hazard. There are 10 possible receivers, all operating at 532 nm. They include five PMTs and five SPADS. The receiving telescope incorporates a narrowband (0.4 nm) optical filter to permit daylight ranging. DLR has operated experimental SLR systems at Uhlandshöhe Forschungsobservatorium (UFO), the Uhlandshöhe Research Observatory in Stuttgart, Germany, since at least 2012. The current SLR operates at a 100 kHz effective pulse rate with 50 micro-Joule energy per 10 ns wide pulse ( ). It has provided ranging to cooperative satellites in 20,000 km high orbits to 1 cm precision after averaging thousands of returns over two minutes of observation time. While averaging can provide greater range precision than a single pulse observation, it prevents determination of fast spin or tumble rates, which require high single pulse precision. The laser transmitter is a 1062 nm wavelength Jenoptik fibre laser operating at 8 W average output power with 80 micro-Joule/pulse at the laser head. The laser is connected to the transmitting optics on the telescope mount via a simple multi-mode fiberoptic cable rather than a complex mirror arrangement or affixing the laser itself to the telescope mount. This convenience had a price in a large laser beam divergence, resulting in lower power on target. It is recognized that performance might be improved by replacing the multi-mode fiber with single-mode fiber providing better optical performance. The laser pulse was kept long (10 ns) to reduce the peak power applied to the fiberoptic cable faces to avoid damage. This long pulse width reduced single pulse range precision to 60 cm, but the high PRF allowed an effective precision of 1 cm after averaging. The high PRF, however, prevented per-pulse delayed gating of the receiver detector to avoid picking up atmospheric backscatter from the transmitter pulses. Instead, the transmitter is triggered at 200 Hz to produce 50% duty cycle bursts of 200 kHz pulses (thus the system's effective 100 kHz PRF) while the detector is blanked. The detector is un-blanked after the pulses exit the atmosphere in order to capture the return signal. The Uhlandshöhe Research Observatory SLR system was a designated ILRS Engineering Station for testing new SLR technologies and techniques. Operation was discontinued in 2021 and it does not appear in the current ILRS list of either engineering or active stations. DLR designed the MiniSLR Compact Satellite Laser Ranging Station as a ruggedized, low cost, low footprint, low labor requirement prototype to expand the overburdened ILRS to areas where stations are scarce or non-existent, including Africa, North and South America, and at polar latitudes ( ). The MiniSLR employs a direct drive mount holding both the 20 cm Newton receiving and the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser providing 200 microJoule 1064 nm pulses at 30 kHz PRF. The low power requires 20mm x 20mm light weight retro-reflectors on the LEO objects being tracked, making the system unsuited for tracking debris - or UAPs. The laser emissions are claimed to not be an aviation hazard due to being (near) IR. (It is true that 1064 nm is invisible to humans, so no distracting glare, but the wavelength can pass through glass and the cornea to damage the retina if sufficiently powerful). The optics mount sits atop a 1.8m x 1.2m x 1.6 m weatherproof air-conditioned metal container holding all control and data collection, processing, and reporting electronics. The system can be operated either fully autonomously or under remote control. Processed satellite range data is automatically reported to a designated website. Performance testing in 2019 was successful in ranging to multiple targets, but the telescope mount proved a problem. An upgrade to a new mount and higher power 150 micro Joule pulse energy, 75 kHz PRF, 400 ps pulse width laser was underway in 2019, with renewed testing planned for 2021. 
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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck MSNBC’s Wallace: Tucker Carlson's 'Arms and Legs Wrapped Around an American Adversary'

MSNBC’s Wallace: Tucker Carlson's 'Arms and Legs Wrapped Around an American Adversary' submitted by HowardJDuck to BreitbartNews [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 06:06 Rumana67 QuarashiNetwork

This project is a powerful project. The roadmap of this project is very long & strong. I like this project very much. The chances of success of this project are very high.
QuarashiNetwork #Blockchain #TokenSale #ICO #Presale #Cryptocurrency
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2022.01.28 06:06 Dystkenesia you can now choose your life difficulties, peaceful, very easy, easy, normal, hard, very hard, hell on earth? what would you choose? why?

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2022.01.28 06:06 DuckGirll New armor sets

How you get new armor? Does it just drop randomly from match and what rep you need to be to get them?
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2022.01.28 06:06 Chuis-Autiste Why did Chucky hate Lexy so much?

He put a lot of effort into attempting to kill her for no real reason. Despite Jake not having the guts to kill Lexy to complete the voodoo spell, Chucky decides to kill her himself. This is weird because Chucky is extremely focused in his goals so him wasting his time to kill a girl he has no vendetta with is weird.
What’s even weirder is that later on he offers to spare Lexy in exchange for killing Jake. He’s also fine with Junior trying to convince her to join his cult. That’s inconsistent.
Chucky said in episode 3 that he was killing Lexy for Jake which absolutely makes no sense. Chucky is a monster who doesn’t care about anyone but himself and everyone is just tools to him. Why would Jake be any different? Someone who killed his mother for shits and giggles isn’t capable of empathy.
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2022.01.28 06:06 ArtofZed Gehalt Schweiz mit Master lohnenswert?

Bei Gehälter wird in der Regel mit Faktor 1,5 gerechnet. Heißt das konkret +- selber Lebensstandard wie in DE?
Ich habe mir paar Sankeys angeguckt und teilweise was man für Sparraten haben kann aufgrund der geringen Steuern ist schon erschreckend.
Nur ist die Vergleichbarkeit Schwierig. Master IG Metal in Bayern EG 12 sind Minimum 83k auf 38,5 (13 Gehälter berechnet) ohne Performance und Jahresboni und Transformationsgeld
Sprich mit 125k hätte ich den selben Lebensstandard? Eigentlich müsste doch deutlich mehr liegen bleiben, weil irgendwann Fixkosten ja gedeckelt sind.
Wobei das Gehalt vermutlich auf 42h 20 Tahe Urlaub berechnet ist. Solötean dann eher 150k einplanen?
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2022.01.28 06:06 Hiep-Nguyen10 Always on display keeps turning off after the update

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2022.01.28 06:06 TurbulentEngine3 [F27] feeling cute😊

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2022.01.28 06:06 ntfrndlynbrhd Pro tip, don't fight the person wearing an MMA hoodie.

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2022.01.28 06:06 Chogged [PC] [UK] Keyboard and Mouse player diamond 2/3

Looking for players to rank up with. Currently been stuck in diamond for about 6 months now and it’s probably because I’m using Keyboard but I won’t be changing because I’m 500 hours in and don’t want to really put effort into use a joypad.
If you fancy playing together, let me know! I’m on most nights and always playing comp 3’s.
Reply here to add you or message me directly!
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2022.01.28 06:06 NadxCH I think my husband is cheating, but how do I go about finding out without going through his phone?

Say he works 9 to 4 from Monday to Friday, comes home 5:00/5:15 everyday. Sometimes earlier or later but I never took notice because it’s not an issue. Lately he’s been coming home 6:00 or even later, I’ve asked him what’s taking him longer than usual, he’ll always say he had to stay back at work because someone else got sacked and he had extra work. Okay, seems fine. But he’s not hardly or never in the mood for sex anymore after work, or late at night. Okay, seems fine I guess since he’s doing extra work now. But before this, he would come home and sit on the sofa, put the tv on and grab a snack or whatever. Now he comes home and takes a shower, then sit on the sofa and grabs a snack.
So to see, he came home and I grabbed him, took his pants off and blew him. He junk was smelling of sex, idk how to explain it but it’s sex. I didn’t mention it to him but now I have even more suspicion that he’s having sex before he comes home.
So my question is, how do I find out without going through his phone?
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2022.01.28 06:06 pizzabot126 Do I want to BE him or be WITH him?

Bottom line: Do I want to BE him or be WITH him? (Not talking about anyone in particular)
Ok let’s take this step by step.
Sexuality: I used to be boy crazy, in elementary, middle and high school. I always had a crush on a boy. Starting middle school I had platonic crushes on girls. I really had the urge to be their friends and be close with them. I used to hold hands with a couple different girls and we would walk eachother to class. Fast forward to my third year of college. I finally realized I’m into girls. I didn’t sleep or date any women but I was intensely attracted to them to the point where I wasn’t really noticing men. Except their arms and muscles.
Later, I met a guy we dated for 2 years on and off, but he didn’t want to make it official. We went on 14 dates and had official feelings for each other and were monogamous when I lost my virginity to him at 23. Ultimately I had to leave because he was severely insecurely attached and paranoid about feeling controlled.
Anyway, now I’m in grad school and I have a crush on this insanely beautiful, and smart girl. My goodness her beauty just blows me away. She’s bisexual and we’ve caught glances before and, like, once my pinky accidentally touched hers. I freaked out and moved my hand. It sounds silly but it was such an intense feeling and moment (for me at-least).
Ok now gender stuff:
I have a curvy body and have had so since i was really young. Ive had male teachers stare at my chest. I’ve endured unsolicited sexual comments and advances by cis-men. It made me feel like an object/commodity. In college, I realized that I felt most comfortable in my body when I expressed more modestly. At the beginning of college, I still expressed femininely, but I made sure to opt for more loose and baggy clothing.
Over the past three or four years, my style has become more masculine. I don’t think it’s only for modesty reasons anymore. I like wearing men’s shirts, and men’s pants. I’ve been experimenting with hats and stuff. People call me a tomboy. I still express femininely a bit, in that I do my hair and make up. Sometimes when my hair is back and I am not wearing make up people call me sir. I never really correct them and instead kind of get a kick out of it. I’m still comfortable expressing femininely as long as I am covered up.
So what’s going on? I think I am bisexual? Masculine bisexual? Gender fluid? Cis gendered with clothing dysphoria?
Please help me lol
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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck Schweizer: Biden Family Made $31 Million on Deals with Officials Linked to Chinese Intelligence

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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck Exclusive— Iranian American Group Slams Biden for 3rd Trial Delay of Accused Iranian Agent

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2022.01.28 06:06 shimatake Biking or running in the dark? Here's how the drivers see you based on the clothes you wear.

Biking or running in the dark? Here's how the drivers see you based on the clothes you wear. submitted by shimatake to bicla [link] [comments]

2022.01.28 06:06 Bl4nk24 I made a German glutenfree Subreddit

I joined the glutenfree subreddit to show my girlfriend new products, but almost all products are not available in Germany and delivery is also not a good option because of the high costs. When I was looking for a German Reddit community, I didn't find anything either and just thought I'd open my own. so I'm still looking for members who want to join so that we can open a German community.
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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck Elizabeth Warren Calls for Court-Packing After Breyer Retires

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2022.01.28 06:06 Abibliothecarius Would you like to live in South Sudan?

This seems to be the closest approximation of an anarchist society without any sort of government and just tribes of people banding together for survival. Would you like to live there? Why or why not?
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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck Manchin: It 'Would Not Bother Me' if SCOTUS Pick Is More Liberal Than Me

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2022.01.28 06:06 Duncolm [3] Daily Pinpointable Challenge - 28th Jan - Israel

Can anyone here read Hebrew? Don't panic, it shouldn't be necessary - challenge link
The format is no moving and no time limit. All locations should have enough visible information to be pinpointable and aren't intended to be too difficult (mostly). If you can score 25000 then how quickly can you do it?
Previous challenges in this series:
Luxembourg, Otago, Eswatini, Corsica, Dakotas, Holland, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Galicia, Eastern Canada, Lima, Norway Vestland, Budapest, Hokkaido, Tuscany, Hong Kong, Crete, Connacht, Baja California, Australian Capital Territory, Slovenia, Kwazulu Natal, Singapore, Puglia
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2022.01.28 06:06 tkainrad An interactive course to learn Slack's keyboard shortcuts

An interactive course to learn Slack's keyboard shortcuts I have created an interactive course to learn Slack's keyboard shortcuts:
It consists of 9 lessons, grouped into modules. Lessons are carefully separated by topic and importance, meaning that the first lessons of a course should cover the most useful combinations. A lesson typically consists of 5-10 key combinations. The interactive trainer will save and analyze your practice performance to determine when you have mastered a particular shortcut and lesson.
It helped me a lot to become more efficient with Slack. As a result, I like using it a lot more!
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2022.01.28 06:06 Lord_Susmuffin Lovecraft en rêve et en majesté (Intégrale I)

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2022.01.28 06:06 HowardJDuck Clyburn Confirms His Endorsement of Joe Biden Hinged on SCOTUS Pick

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2022.01.28 06:06 computer_addiction Best pen for around 150$?

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